Directory: Faculty

Shelley D. Minteer

Shelley D. Minteer


USTAR Professor

Western Illinois University, B.S. in Chemistry 1995
University of Iowa, Ph.D. in Chemistry 2000

Phone: 801-587-8325

Office: B611 TBBC


Research Group


Activities & Awards

  • 2013 Fellow of The Electrochemical Society
  • 2010 Tajima Prize of the International Society of Electrochemistry
  • 2008 American Chemical Society St. Louis Award
  • 2008 Scientific American Top 50 Award
  • 2008 Society of Electroanalytical Chemists Young Investigator Award
  • 2006 U.S. Department of Defense Okaloosa Award
  • 2006 Missouri Inventor of the Year Award
  • 2005 Academy of Science of St. Louis Innovation Award

Research Interests

The Minteer Research Group is currently focused on studying bioelectrocatalysis. We have two main projects: enzyme cascades for bioelectrocatalysis and organelle bioelectrocatalysis for sensing and energy conversion applications. Our research in enzymatic bioelectrocatalysis is focused on both the bioengineering of natural enzymatic metabolic pathways for bioanodes for biofuel cells as well as enzyme discovery and enzyme engineering for non-natural complete oxidation pathways for biofuels. Our research in organelle-based bioelectrocatalysis is focused on the use of mitochondria to catalyze the complete oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids at the anode of fuel cells as well as the unique biochemical actuation properties of mitochondria that allow for the use of mitochondria for self-powered explosive sensing.

Biofuel cells are a type of fuel cell where a biocatalyst is used as the catalyst for converting the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy, instead of a traditional metallic catalyst. Our research group has made advances in enzymatic fuel cell lifetimes over the last decade due to the development of a novel enzyme immobilization membrane that three-dimensionally constrains the enzyme while providing a buffered pH and a hydrophobic environment that mimics the cellular environment. However, in order to effectively utilize biofuel cells as energy conversion devices, it is essential to be able to use enzyme cascades to allow for complete oxidation of complex biofuels and, thereby, high energy densities, as well as coupling to an air breathing biocathode to ensure high current densities. In a living cell, complex fuels/substrates are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide utilizing the enzymatic cascades of metabolic pathways, such as: the Kreb's cycle, glycolysis, etc. These metabolic pathways can be used to oxidize fuels in a biofuel cell, but require the immobilization of over 20 enzymes at a bioanode, whereas only 6 of these enzymes are dehydrogenase (i.e. electron producing enzymes). We have employed metabolic engineering to design and study these systems. However, we are also developing enzymatic cascades for complete oxidation of a variety of biofuels by employing non-specific PQQ-dependent dehydrogenases. We have previously shown the ability to do this for the complex alcoholic fuels: ethylene glycol and glycerol.

Mitochondria are considered the "powerhouse" of the cell and contain enzymes and enzymatic pathways that can completely oxidize biofuel sources, such as: pyruvate. Recently, our research group has developed a biofuel cell that employs mitochondria as the anode catalyst which is responsible for oxidizing fuel. As with any fuel cell, this fuel cell will only produce electrical energy in the presence of fuel, but mitochondria are different than most traditional catalyst in that there are a number of inhibitors (e.g. the antibiotic oligomycin) that can stop mitochondria functioning, which in turn will stop the electrical power generation. However, this mitochondrial function (metabolism of fuel) can be returned by the addition of an uncoupler or uncoupler. It is important to note that nitroaromatic compounds are common explosive materials, but are also selective uncouplers for mitochondrial inhibition. Therefore, we have been studying the use of inhibited mitochondria as sensors for nitroaromatic explosives. This is a self-powered sensor, because there will be no power produced in the absence of the explosive material, but after the nitroaromatic explosive is present, it will decouple the inhibited mitochondria and allow for the mitochondria to catalyze the oxidation of pyruvate fuel to carbon dioxide. This oxidation at the anode of a biofuel cell in combination with the reduction of oxygen to water at the cathode produces power that can then be used for signaling the presence of the explosive.

Shelley Minteer is a member of Utah MRSEC.

topSelected Publications

  • M. Meredith and S.D. Minteer, “Inhibition and Activation of Glucose Oxidase Bioanodes for Use in a Self-Powered EDTA Sensor,” Analytical Chemistry, 2011, 93(13),5436-5441.
  • R. Arechederra, A. Waheed, and S.D. Minteer, “Electrically Wired Mitochondrial Electrodes for Measuring Mitochondrial Function for Drug Screening,” Analyst, 2011, 136, 3747-3752.
  • S. Higgins, C. Lau, S.D. Minteer, P. Atanassov, and M. Cooney, “Standardized Characterization of a Flow Through Microbial Fuel Cell”, Electroanalysis, 2011, 23(9), 2174-2181.
  • S. Higgins, C. Lau, S.D. Minteer, P. Atanassov, and M. Cooney, “Hybrid Biofuel Cell: Microbial Fuel Cell with an Enzymatic Air-Breathing Cathode”, ACS Catalysis, 2011, 1(9), 994-997.
  • K. Sjoholm and S.D. Minteer, “Development of conductive mesoporous structures from chitosan,” ECS Transactions, 2011, 35(26), 45-51.
  • M. Moehlenbrock, M. Meredith, and S.D. Minteer, “Bi-functional Polyamines for the Aqueous Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes and Formation of CNT-Impregnated Hydrogel Composites,” MRS Communications, 2011, 1(1), 37-40.
  • M. Zhang, S. Xu, S.D. Minteer, and D. Baum, “Investigation of a deoxyribozyme as a biofuel cell catalyst,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, 133, 15890-15893.
  • S. Meredith, M. Meredith, and S.D. Minteer, “Hydrophobic Salt Modified Nafion for Enzyme Immobilization and Stabilization,” Journal of Visualized Experiments, 2012, 65, e3949.
  • M. Meredith, M. Minson, D. Hickey, K. Artyushkova, D. Glatzhofer, and S.D. Minteer, "Anthracene-Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Direct Electron Transfer Scaffolds for Enzymatic Oxygen Reduction," ACS Catalysis, 2011,1(12), 1683-1690.
  • M. Moehlenbrock, M. Meredith, S.D. Minteer, “Bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in CNT impregnated hydrogels: Advantages of synthetic enzymatic metabolon formation,” ACS Catalysis, 2012, 2, 17-25.
  • L. Pelster and S.D. Minteer, “Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Reductase (Complex III) Electrochemistry at Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nafion Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes,” Electrochimica Acta, 2012, 82, 214-217.
  • E. Campbell, M. Meredith, S.D. Minteer, and S. Banta, “An enzymatic biofuel cell utilizing a biomimetic cofactor,” ChemComm, 2012, 48, 1898-1900.
  • S. Xu and S.D. Minteer, “Enzymatic Biofuel Cell for Oxidation of Glucose to CO2,” ACS Catalysis, 2012,2, 91-94.
  • S. Tuurala, C. Lau, P. Atanassov, M. Smolander, and S.D. Minteer, “Characterization and Stability Study of Immobilized PQQ-Dependent Aldose Dehydrogenase Bioanodes,” Electroanalysis, 2012, 24, 229-238.
  • L. Pelster, M. Meredith, and S.D. Minteer, “Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Oxidation Studies at Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes,” Electroanalysis, 2012, 24, 1011-1018.
  • S. Maltzman and S.D. Minteer, “Mitochondria-based Voltammetric Sensor for Pesticides,” Analytical Methods, 2012, 4, 1202-1206.
  • M. Meredith and S.D. Minteer, “Biofuel Cells: Enhanced Enzymatic Bioelectrocatalysis,” Annual Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 2012, 5, 157-179.
  • S. Sattayasamitsathit, A.M. O’Mahony, X. Xiao, S.M. Brozik, C.M. Washburn, D.R. Wheeler, W. Gao, S.D. Minteer, J. Cha, D.B. Burckel, R. Polsky, and J. Wang, “Highly Ordered Tailored Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Nano/Microporous Gold/Carbon Architectures,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2012, 22, 11950-11956.
  • S.D. Minteer, P. Atanassov, H.R. Luckarift, and G.R. Johnson, “New Materials for Biological Fuel Cells,” Materials Today, 2012, 15, 166-173.
  • M. Meredith, F. Giroud, and S.D. Minteer, “Azine/hydrogel/nanotube composite-modified electrodes for NADH catalysis and enzyme immobilization,” Electrochimica Acta, 2012, 72, 207-214.
  • R. Arechederra, A. Waheed, W. Sly, C. Supuran, and S.D. Minteer, “Effect of Sulfonamides as Carbonic Anhydrase VA and VB Inhibitors on Mitochondrial Metabolic Energy Conversion,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, 21, 1544-1548.
  • M. Rasmussen, K. Sjoholm, and S.D. Minteer, “Bio-solar Cells Incorporating Catalase for Stabilization of Thylakoid Bioelectrodes During Direct Photoelectrocatalysis,” ECS Electrochemistry Letters, 2012, 1, G7-G9.
  • M. A. Arugula, K.S. Brastad, S.D. Minteer, and Z. He, “Enzyme Catalyzed Electricity-Driver Water Softening System,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 2012, 51, 396-401.
  • S. Aquino Neto, E. Suda, S. Xu, M. Meredith, A. de Andrade, and S.D. Minteer, “Direct electron transfer-based bioanodes for ethanol biofuel cells using PQQ-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase,” Electrochimica Acta, 2013, 87, 323-329.
  • G.G.W. Lee, J. Leddy, and S.D. Minteer, “Enhancing Alcohol Electrocatalysis with the Introduction of Magnetic Composites to Nickel Electrocatalysts, Chem Communications, 2012, 48, 11972-11974.
  • D. Chen, G.G.W. Lee, and S.D. Minteer, “Utilizing DNA for Electrocatalysis: DNA-Nickel Aggregates as Anodic Electrocatalysts for Methanol, Ethanol, Glycerol, and Glucose,” ECS Electrochemistry Letters, 2013, 2(2), F9-F13.
  • S. Sattayasamitsathit, Y. Gu, K. Kaufmann, W. Jia, X. Xiao, S. Minteer, J. Cha, D. B. Burckel, C. Wang, R. Polsky, J. Wang, “Highly-Ordered Multilayered 3D Graphene Decorated with Metal Nanoparticles,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2013, 1, 1639-1645.
  • Y.H. Kim, E. Campbell, J. Yu, S.D. Minteer, and S. Banta, “Complete Oxidation of Methanol in Biobattery Devices Using a Hydrogel Created from Three Modified Dehydrogenases,” Angewandte Chemie, 2013, 52, 1437-1440.
  • S.D. Minteer, “Nanobioelectrocatalysis and Its Application in Biosensors, Biofuel Cells, and Bioprocessing,” Topics in Catalysis, 2012, 55, 1157-1161.
  • M.Minson, M.T. Meredith, A. Shrier, F. Giroud, D. Hickey, D.T. Glatzhofer, and S.D. Minteer, “High performance glucose/O2 biofuel cell: effect of utilizing purified laccase with anthracene-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2012, 159(12), G166-G170.
  • P.A. Jelliss, S.S. Graham, A. Josipovic, S. Boyko, S.D. Minteer, and V. Svoboda, “Synthesis and characterization of ferracarborane-chitosan and ferracarborane-multiwalled carbon nanotube redox mediator conjugates for bioanode applications,” Polyhedron, 2013, 50(1), 36-44.
  • N. Hausman, M. Meredith, and S.D. Minteer, “Towards the Design of an Acetone Breath Biosensors,” ECS Transactions, 2013, 45(16), 1-17.
  • M. Rasmussen an S.D. Minteer, “Self-Powered Herbicide Biosensor Utilizing Thylakoid Membranes,” Analytical Methods, 2013, 5, 1140-1144.
  • G.G.W. Lee and S.D. Minteer, “Greener Method to a Manganese Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) Electrocatalyst-Anion Electrolyte Effects on Electrocatalytic Performance,” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2013, 1(3), 359-363.
  • J. Yu, M. Rasmussen, and S.D. Minteer, “Effects of Carbon Nanotube Paper Properties on Enzymatic Bioanodes,” Electroanalysis, 2013, 25(5), 1130-1134.
  • F. Giroud, T. Nicolo, S. Koepke, and S.D. Minteer, “Understanding the Mechanism of Direct Electrochemistry of Mitochondria-Modified Electrodes from Yeast, Potato, and Bovine Sources at Carbon Paper Electrodes,” Electrochimica Acta, 2013, 110, 111-119.
  • M. Jose Gonzalez, D. Sanchez, F. Giroud, and S. D. Minteer, “Rapid Prototyping of a Membraneless Glucose/O2 Microfluidic Enzymatic Biofuel Cell with Pyrolyzed Photoresist Film Electrodes,” Lab-on-a-Chip, 2013, 13, 2972-2979.
  • M. Rasmussen, A. Shrier, and S.D. Minteer, “High Performance Thylakoid Bio-Solar Cell Using Laccase Enzymatic Biocathodes,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2013, 15(23) 9062-9065.
  • V. Ganesan, M. Meredith, and S.D. Minteer, “Ion Exchange Voltammetry at Branched Polyethylenimine Cross-linked with Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether and Sensitive Determination of Ascorbic Acid,” Electrochimica Acta, 2013, 105, 31-39.
  • G.G.W. Lee and S.D. Minteer, “Nickel-DNA Complexes: Bioelectrocatalysis or Not?,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2013, 160(8) H463-H468.
  • F. Giroud and S.D. Minteer, “Anthracene-Modified Pyrenes Immobilized on Carbon Nantotubes for Direct Electroreduction of O2 by Laccase,” Electrochemistry Communiations, 2013, 34, 157-160.
  • M. Rasmussen and S.D. Minteer, “Investigating the mechanism of thylakoid direct electron transfer for photocurrent generation,” Electrochimica Acta, in press.
  • S. Sattayasamitsathit, Y. Gu, K. Kaufmann, S.D. Minteer, R. Polsky, and J. Wang, “ Tunable Hierarchical Macro/Mesoporous Gold Microwires Fabricated by Dual-Templating and Dealloying Processes,” Nanoscale, 2013, 5(17), 7849-7854.
  • R. Reid, F. Giroud, S.D. Minteer, and B. Gale, “Enzymatic Biofuel Cell with a Flow-Through Toray Paper Bioanode for Improved Fuel Utilization,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, in press.
  • F. Wu and S.D. Minteer, “Fluorescent Characterization of Co-Immobilization Induced Multi-Enzyme Aggregation in a Polymer Matrix Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET): Towards the Metabolon Biomimic,” Biomacromolecules, in press.
  • A.Walcarius, S.D. Minteer, J. Wang, Y. Lin, and A. Merkoci, “Nanomaterials for Bio-Functionalized Electrodes: Recent Trends,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2013, 1(38), 4878-4908.
  • S. Aquito-Neto, M.Meredith, S.D. Minteer, and A. de Andrade, “Employing Methylene Green Coated Carbon Nanotube Electrodes to Enhance NADH Electrocatalysis for Use in an Ethanol Biofuel Cell,” Electroanalysis, 2013, 25(10), 2394-2402.
  • S. Xu and S.D. Minteer, “Investigating the Impact of Multi-Heme Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Orientation on Direct Bioelectrocatalysis via Site Specific Enzyme Immobilization,” ACS Catalysis, 2013, 3, 1756-1763.
  • F. Giroud, D. Schmidke, D. Glatzhofer, and S.D. Minteer, “Enzyme Cascade for Catalyzing Sucrose Oxidation,” ACS Catalysis, in press.
  • R. Milton, F. Giroud, A. Thumser, S.D. Minteer, and R. Slade, “Bilirubin oxidase bioelectrocatalytic cathodes: the impact of hydrogen peroxide,” ChemComm, 2014, 50(1), 94-96.